B Virus Infection Is Caused By The Zoonotic Agent Macacine Herpesvirus 1

B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1 1

B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1, an alphaherpesvirus commonly found among macaque monkeys the natural host. B Virus (herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B). B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1. However, zoonotic infection with B virus in humans usually results in fatal encephalomyelitis or severe neurologic impairment.

B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1 2Conversely, when humans are zoonotically infected with B virus, patients can present with severe central nervous system disease, resulting in permanent neurological dysfunction or death. B virus is the only identified nonhuman primate herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans. By 1959, B virus was identified as the causative agent in 17 human cases, 12 of which resulted in death. Serious disease due to BV is rare in macaques, but when transmitted to humans, BV has a propensity to invade the central nervous system and has a fatality rate greater than 70 if not treated promptly. However, the fatal effect of zoonotic BV infection in humans has driven the effort to eliminate BV from research macaques. In some, but not all, cases of zoonotic B virus infection, acyclovir and ganciclovir have proven to be effective at curtailing disease progression (7, 8).

B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is a zoonotic agent that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. Previously reported cases of B virus disease in humans usually have been attributed to animal bites, scratches, or percutaneous inoculation with infected materials; however, the first fatal case of B virus infection due to mucosal splash exposure was reported in 1998. B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1) is closely related to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and encodes gD, which shares more than 70 amino acid similarity with HSV-1 gD. B virus is the only known simplexvirus that causes zoonotic infection, resulting in approximately 80 mortality in untreated humans or in lifelong persistence with the constant threat of reactivation in survivors. During these investigations, B virus was categorized as a select agent by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS); thus, all experiments were done in accordance with relevant Health and Human Services (HHS) (64, 65) and DHS regulations in the Viral Immunology Center biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory of Georgia State University prior to 2007 and BSL-4 laboratory following that date. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), enzootic among monkeys of the genus Macaca, causes minimal morbidity in its natural host. However, cases of severe zoonotic disease, including infections with Macacine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B) and Marburg-Reston virus, led to the implementation of stricter guidelines governing contact with NHP B Virus Working Group, 1988;Holmes et al. We conclude that primatologists are at high risk for exposure to NHP-borne infectious agents.

Herpes B Virus

B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1 3Organism or Agent: Macacine herpes virus 1 (MHV-1). Zoonosis: Yes, through direct or indirect contact with the bodily fluids of MHV-1 infected monkeys. The vesicular eruption is clinically and pathologically similar to that caused by herpes simplex virus. Though it rarely causes disease in the natural host, accidental infection in humans and nonmacaque primates have been reported to cause fatal disseminated infection. The clinical course of disseminated viral infection can be peracute to slowly progressive, and herpes B virus infection as an underlying causative agent may not be suspected. Herpes B virus infection of humans is characterized by ascending paralysis and a high mortality rate. This resulted in early removal of all high-dose monkeys from the study because of zoonotic concerns.

Recommendations For Prevention Of And Therapy For Exposure To B Virus (cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1)

Herpes Is A Disease That Affects Humans And Other Animals, But It Is Not Zoonotic

Herpes is a disease that affects humans and other animals, but it is not zoonotic 1

List of zoonotic diseases that can be transmitted from animals to people. B virus (Herpes B). Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that can affect goats and other livestock such as sheep and cows and wild ruminants such as deer, elk and bison. Rat bite fever is rare in the United States, but it’s not a notifiable disease, so exact numbers of cases are unknown. It is hard to establish with certainty which diseases jumped from other animals to humans, but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to us this way. Because they depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle, diseases such as African schistosomiasis, river blindness, and elephantiasis are not defined as zoonotic, even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors. Only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. Keywords: herpes B virus, herpes simplex virus, Marek’s disease virus, phocine herpesvirus. Infections of species other than swine invariably results in severe neurological symptoms and death of the affected animals (Kluge et al., 1992; Glass et al. Consequently, a post-entry restriction of virus growth is likely but has not been investigated in any detail (Mravak et al., 1987; Kluge et al.

Herpes is a disease that affects humans and other animals, but it is not zoonotic 2However, zoonotic infection with B virus in humans usually results in fatal encephalomyelitis or severe neurologic impairment. Many other accepted terms for this virus exist, including Herpesvirus simiae, herpes B, monkey B virus, and herpesvirus B. In general, macaques remain asymptomatic, and identification of oral herpetic lesions is sufficient grounds for euthanasia of the affected animal. The true frequency of B-virus shedding in macaque populations is not known but is likely to be low. But humans are primates of a sort – similar to monkeys – and many of the disease-causing organisms that belong in sub-human primates, can live in humans and go out of control. Another key difference is their resistance to many diseases that affect Old World monkeys. Diseases of animals that also infect humans are called zoonoses. Just as the human immune system is not equipped to deal with monkey herpes B virus. Bats are already known to carry several diseases that affect humans, and although it’s rare, they can trigger outbreaks if they come into contact with humans or animals. Not only are most herpes viruses pretty harmless, but animal-to-human transmission of herpes is very rare. The likelihood of being affected by BGHV8, or any other animal herpes, is exceptionally low, so researching how this virus affects humans won’t be a high priority for now. Currently, 75 percent of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses – diseases that are transferred from an animal to a human.

SIGNIFICANT ZOONOTIC DISEASE OF NON-HUMAN PRIMATES November 1988 Division of Veterinary Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute Washington DC 20307 Significant Diseases of Nonhuman Primates TABLE OF CONTENTS Herpes-B. RESERVOIR AND INCIDENCE: The virus is enzootic in rhesus, cyno and other asiatic monkeys of macaque genus. But this definition has been modified to include all human diseases (whether or not they manifest themselves in all hosts as apparent diseases) that are acquired from or transmitted to any other vertebrate animal. Thus, zoonoses are naturally occurring infections and infestations shared by man and other vertebrates. The study of animals with diseases similar to those that affect man has increased knowledge of the diseases in man; knowledge of nutrition, for example, based largely on the results of animal studies, has improved the health of animals, including man. Zoonotic Disease. Non-human primates can carry a variety of zoonotic diseases as detailed below. Therefore, the use of protective clothing not only protects you, but also the animals. Cercopithecine Herpes Virus I. Other Viral Infections.

B-virus (cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1) Infection In Humans And Macaques: Potential For Zoonotic Disease

Many viral diseases, such as hepatitis or herpes B, can be transmitted from animal to man. A virus may be latent in one species of primate, with little or no disease, yet be fatal in another species of primate, including man. Klebsiella and other water-borne, gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas) are primarily opportunists affecting primates that have a lowered resistance. In the wild, many scavenge about villages and share not only food but also the parasites of the human inhabitants. While most feline infectious diseases affect only cats, and most human infectious diseases affect only humans, it is important to be aware that some of these diseases called zoonotic diseases can be transmitted between cats and people. Healthy adults generally recover with no lasting effects, but it may take several months for the disease to go away completely. Judgement: The carcass of an animal affected with vesicular stomatitis is approved if the disease is not in the acute stage and secondary changes are not present. A herpes virus infection of cattle and sometimes sheep and goats manifested by cutaneous lesions and fever. Q fever is a disease of cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, camels, fowl, dogs, cats, pigeons and humans. It is a significant zoonotic disease. Identify and explain the mechanisms by which infectious diseases tuberculosis that may affect the risk for becoming infected are not as well defined. Rabies transmission to humans via an animal bite is a direct route, but zoonoses can also be transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans via vectors. Common route of infection bite or scratch from an infected monkey (monkey shows no sign of illness). Host can be found in sheep, goats, cattle, cats, dogs and domestic fowl. Home Animals Other animals Transmission of herpesvirus from a person to a rabbit. This case shows how viruses typically associated with one species can sometimes affect others.

Primate Info Net: Zoonoses Acquired From Pet Primates

The human herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, causes a mild infection in people and certain other primates, but owl monkeys, gibbons, capuchins, and tree shrews (Tupaia glis) are highly susceptible and may die; signs may include ulcerations of the mucous membrane or skin, conjunctivitis, meningitis, or encephalitis. Because some vaccines are not available to protect nonhuman primate colony personnel or the primates against herpes and some viral hepatitis infections, exposure should be prevented. SIV has been demonstrated to infect people, although the longterm consequences of infection are unknown. Hemorrhagic viral zoonoses, such as Ebola, Marburg, and mosquito-borne yellow fever, are risks with wild-caught animals. The plague, another animal-born disease, has sickened at least 22 Americans and killed at least one. For example, herpes B virus is a pathogen carried by 80 to 90 percent of adult macaques. The virus may not harm the macaques, but humans can be infected and suffer severe neurological damage or death. Herpes is an extremely serious, usually fatal disease in tortoises. It should not be confused with herpes-virus infection in humans, which is a relatively mild condition. A single affected animal can infect others that come into contact with it. Ultimately, euthanasia was advised, but death from the infection ocurred first. FAQ.

B-Virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1) Infection In Humans And Macaques: Potential For Zoonotic Disease

CDC Herpes B virus site home page. The virus is found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also called crab-eating or long-tailed macaques). B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1. Possible routes of transmission include. 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease. Conversely, when humans are zoonotically infected with B virus, patients can present with severe central nervous system disease, resulting in permanent neurological dysfunction or death. B virus is the only identified nonhuman primate herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans. Upon potential infection, samples from both the human and, when possible, the macaque should be sent for B virus diagnostic testing.

B-Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection in Humans and Macaques: Potential for Zoonotic Disease 2B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) causes a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-like infection in macaque monkeys but can also cause a fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease. Because of the B virus’s prevalence in macaques and other biomedical research animals, study of the B virus is important for several reasons. 1 The Virus 1. 1) infection in humans and macaques: Potential for zoonotic disease. B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is a zoonotic agent that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. The virus naturally infects macaque monkeys, resulting in disease that is similar to herpes simplex virus infection in humans. B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is a naturally occurring infectious agent that is endemic among macaque monkeys (including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, cynomolgus monkeys, and other macaques) 1 3. Persons with potential exposure to B virus should report to their occupational health care provider for counseling and education and to receive written materials about the signs and symptoms of B virus infection.

Non-human primates can carry a variety of zoonotic diseases as detailed below. Most species of macaque monkeys (rhesus, cynomolgus) can carry a virus known as B virus, Herpesvirus simiae or Cercopithecine Herpes Virus I. It is very similar to human herpes virus which causes cold sores in humans. Care should be taken by anyone handling these samples to prevent potential exposure to zoonotic pathogens. The actual number of human B virus infections is unclear. Infection in humans and macaques: Potential for zoonotic disease. The pathogens that can be passed from nonhuman primates to humans and vice versa include bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Persons in contact with these animals must always be aware of the potential risks involved. Although experimentally infected new world monkeys develop fatal disease and could conceivably become infected by contact with macaques, under most circumstances bites to humans from new world monkeys should not raise concern about this deadly disease because it is not endemic among new world monkeys.

B Virus Infection

B-Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection in Humans and Macaques: Potential for Zoonotic Disease 3B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) infection in humans and macaques: Potential for zoonotic disease. Jennifer L. Huff; Peter A. Barry. Herpes B virus infection is one of the most dangerous viral infections which can be transmitted from non-human primates to human. The official nomenclature is Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1. The virus is closely related to herpes simplex virus (human herpes virus 1, 2) of humans 5 in its structure and its virological and immunological characteristics. Reviews on biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts emphasize a rapidly progressive ascending neuropathy and encephalomyelitis in humans with a fatality rate of 70. 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:246-50. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of recombinant B virus glycoproteins for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in monkey and human sera. Human infection with B virus (also called cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, monkey B virus, and herpes B virus) is the most feared occupational hazard among individuals working with macaque monkeys, since fatality is often the outcome of infection, which proceeds in the absence of effective antiviral therapy (25, 56). 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease.

Nonhuman Primate Biosafety