The diagnosis of HHV-8 infection and the possible role of antiviral therapy will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, mode of transmission, and disease associations of HHV-8 infection are discussed separately. In this review, we highlight the importance of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) lytic replication and the potential for antiviral therapies to prevent or treat HHV-8-related neoplasms. Here, we will focus on the clinical importance of HHV-8 lytic replication, and discuss the potential uses of antiviral therapies for the prevention and treatment of HHV-8-related diseases. Ganciclovir treatment of CMV retinitis in HIV-infected patients statistically significantly reduced the incidence of KS by 75 when given orally and 93 when given intravenously compared to intraocular treatment alone, in a randomized trial 33. Even if continuous HHV-8 lytic replication is important for the persistence of KS tumors, it is possible that once KS has developed these drugs may not suppress HHV-8 replication effectively enough to have clinical benefits. The diagnosis of HHV-8 infection and the possible role of antiviral therapy will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, mode of transmission, and disease associations of HHV-8 infection are discussed separately.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8. Many people infected with KSHV will never show any symptoms. Antiviral drugs, such as ganciclovir, that target the replication of herpesviruses such as KSHV have been used to successfully prevent development of Kaposi’s sarcoma, 24 although once the tumor develops these drugs are of little or no use. Here, the virus infections for which antiviral therapy is needed and the compounds that are available, or are being developed, for the treatment of these infections are described. Here, I will evaluate their usefulness, or potential usefulness, in the control of virus infections. The role of these proteins in HHV-8 pathogenesis is under active study but will not be discussed further in the present article. HHV-8 activity can be monitored via assays that detect either the virus itself (its proteins or nucleic acids) or the host response to infection (antibodies or cellular immune response) (table 2) 4. Means of diagnosis of human herpesvirus 8 infection. Regardless of whether donor/recipient seromatching proves to be beneficial, the use of posttransplantation HHV-8 diagnostics to identify recipients at high risk is likely to provide a benefit because of heightened surveillance and the possible prophylaxis or treatment for KS.
In this article, we review HHV8-driven malignancies and non-neoplastic manifestations, which may occur in immunosuppressed transplant patients, as rare but severe diseases, either after HHV8 primary infections or in association with viral reactivations, particularly focusing on clinical presentations, diagnostic and monitoring approaches, and available treatments for these often neglected posttransplantation complications. Either neoplastic or non-neoplastic HHV8-related posttransplant diseases can also be the result of primary infections in patients showing HHV8-seroconversion after receiving allografts from HHV8-seropositive donors. Contrary to EBV, HHV8 infection has been revealed not to be ubiquitous in the worldwide population. Possible role of tetracyclines on decreasing the accelerated aging process of well-controlled HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy 2015. Treatment of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection varies according to the presenting clinical situation.
Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus
Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus’s epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics. Diagnostics of HHV-8 will be discussed at length in Section 8, HHV-8 Diagnostics. This suggested a possible role for nAb in the prevention of progression from latent asymptomatic HHV-8 infection to KS disease. Fortunately, the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the number of patients who develop KS. Interestingly, KSHV infection alone does not lead to KS and, in Africa, male patients who are not HIV-positive are more frequently affected than females. Being a spouse of a patient with KS is a risk factor for HHV8 seropositivity. Treat any underlying causes if possible – eg, immunodeficiency or immunosuppression. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a rare type of cancer that can affect both the skin and internal organs. Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment. Here, we study the potential roles of a panel of cellular and viral miRNAs as sepsis biomarkers. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Incidence rate of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a prospective multicohort study. GB and gH/gL were shown to be virion constituents, and antibody to gH can neutralize virion infectivity and syncytia formation, suggesting a role of gH in virus entry and in virus-induced cell fusion (31). The overall incidence of these infections has decreased substantially after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) sequences were detected for the first time in Kaposi sarcoma specimens (92,93) by representational difference analysis PCR; HHV-8 is being investigated as the possible etiologic agent. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version. In people with latent infection, the virus can reactivate without causing symptoms; in such cases, asymptomatic shedding occurs and people can transmit infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), can cause certain cancers. Not a known cause of acute illness but has a causative role in Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas that grow primarily in the pleural, pericardial, or abdominal cavities as lymphomatous effusions. Drug Treatment of Herpesviruses.
We review here the current state of knowledge on PEL, its pathogenesis, treatment, and potential implications for future therapy. While the majority of cases of PEL show evidence of infection with EBV in addition to HHV-8, EBV plays an unclear role in PEL oncogenesis. The efficacy of antiviral treatment can potentially be improved if PEL cells can be induced to enter the lytic phase of viral replication, as the majority of antiviral drugs are most effective in the lytic phase. B-cell derivation and the possible pathogenetic role of the Epstein-Barr virus. Information about Kaposi’s sarcoma, its diagnosis and treatment. Start Here! It’s due to a virus called the Human herpesvirus 8, or HHV-8. Controlling the HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy has made a large impact on the development of KS. Your doctor can usually diagnose KS by a visual inspection and by asking some questions about your health history. Click here to verify. Due to the dual role of B cells in HHV-8 infection, both as virus reservoir and as agents of humoral immune control, we analyzed the subset distribution and the functional state of peripheral blood B cells in HHV-8-infected individuals with and without cKS. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and wide readership a perfect fit for your research every time.
Coinfection HCMV and HHV-6 CFS requires valganciclovir with valacyclovir. This means that such chronic infection will not be picked up by standard virology tests including antibodies and PCR. Four studies showing that long term antivirals work. My guess here is that these cardiac abnormalities reflect mitochondrial dysfunction and poor energy delivery to the heart because of the cellular disruption resulting from chronic viral infection. Here, we review the cellular and molecular basis of KSHV latency and reactivation with a focus on the most recent advancements in the field. Latent infection has an essential role in the development of KSHV-associated malignancies because most tumor cells in KS, PEL, and MCD are latently infected by KSHV. Nevertheless, the expression of RTA and RTA s transactivation in the LANA mutant can be further increased by treatment with TPA and butyrate, indicating that KSHV latency is controlled by multiple mechanisms 91., Short duration of elevated vIRF-1 expression during lytic replication of human herpesvirus 8 limits its ability to block antiviral responses induced by alpha interferon in BCBL-1 cells, Journal of Virology, vol. We here present an up-to-date and complete overview of the recent developments concerning HHV-6 biological features, clinical associations, and therapeutic approaches. Apart from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human herpesvirus 8, their prevalence in the adult population is high, although geographic variations exist. Except for the protein encoded by DR7 (pDR7), whose function will be discussed in detail below, the biological functions of the other encoded proteins are not yet known. HHV-6 IE proteins are synthesized within a few hours after infection and regulate the expression of other genes.