Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause genital herpes infections and are the most common cause of genital ulcer disease in industrialized nations. Type-specific HSV serology is becoming more readily available and will enhance the ability to make the diagnosis and guide clinical management in select patients. There have been many recent advances in diagnostic techniques for HSV infections, including new viral detection methods and serological tests. The development of diagnostic tools for genital herpes has lagged behind the development of diagnostic tools for other infections that are characterized by a large proportion of asymptomatic individuals, such as syphilis, chlamydia, and HIV. Molecular tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and sensitive and specific antibody tests for HIV rapidly proceeded from research laboratory use in clinical trials to commercial availability and application in clinical or public health practice. One structural protein, glycoprotein G (gG-1 in HSV-1 and gG-2 in HSV-2), appears to elicit a predominantly type-specific response. Acceptance of herpes simplex virus (HSV)2 type-specific serology testing. Determining whether a patient has been previously exposed to HSV types 1 or 2. The diagnosis HSV infections is routinely made based on clinical findings and supported by laboratory testing using PCR or viral culture. The presence of IgM herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies indicates acute infection with either HSV type 1 or 2.
Provides a brief overview of this test including clinical use and background, methodology, test interpretation, and specimen requirements. Detect and differentiate between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV). Type-specific diagnosis has important implications for prognosis and patient management. Because IgG antibodies to HSV persist for life, serologic assays can detect infection even in the absence of lesions. Several of these tests have been FDA approved in the United States for use in adults. With the new millennium, type specific herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody tests based on the type specific proteins, gG-1 and gG-2, are now on the market for clinicians who wish to use them and for patients who desire to be tested. HSV type specific antibody testing may be considered in a variety of clinical settings (table 1). However, recipients of other vaccine formulations containing gG should be advised that a positive gG based type specific serology will not be useful in diagnosing HSV should they become infected. Type-specific gG serologic testing for the diagnosis of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections has a variety of applications. For the two women who were determined by ELISA to have seroconverted to HSV-2-positive status, Western blot analysis failed to detect gG-2 antibodies during any visit.
The other HerpeSelect test is an immunoblot that includes both gG1 and gG2. Eleven glycoproteins of HSV have been identified (gB, gC, gD, gE, gG, gH, gI, gJ, gK, gL, and gM), with a twelfth being predicted (gN). Using type-specific serologic assays, the seroprevalence of HSV-1 infections has been redefined utilizing sera obtained from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). HSV-2 serologic test does not exclude the diagnosis of genital herpes. Diagnosis of Persistent Viral Infections. The ability to discriminate between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infections by serological means is of increasing importance for clinical virological diagnostics. HSV type-specific serology has a number of applications, e.g. to guide duration and dosage of antiviral therapy, to allow for stringent epidemiological analyses, to evaluate efficacy of HSV vaccine candidates, and to help the clinician during counseling of couples where one has genital herpes. Furthermore, a blocking test utilizing a MAb reactive with gG-2.
Herpes Simplex Virus Igg, Type-specific Antibodies (herpeselect)
Have a question about herpes you’d like Dr. Handsfield or our other experts to answer? Visit our Ask the Experts page to learn how. Unlike IgM, IgG antibodies can be accurately broken down to either HSV-1 or HSV-2. A recent study corroborates this finding: labs that used non-gG-based tests for herpes had high false-positive rates for HSV-2 antibodies (14-88 saying the blood sample was positive for HSV-2) in samples that were actually only positive for HSV-1 antibodies. For the most accurate test result, it is recommended to wait 12 16 weeks from the last possible date of exposure before getting an accurate, type-specific blood test in order to allow enough time for antibodies to reach detectable levels. HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence studies conducted in a variety of populations around the world 1. The accurate assessment of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody status is also key to developing population-based treatment and disease prevention strategies 3, 4 and 5. Commercial tests based on the type-specific HSV gG have been developed and their performance characteristics determined against reference assays. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the main cause of oral herpes infections that occur on the mouth and lips. In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States. Herpes infection in a newborn can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, fevers, mouth sores, and eye infections. The CDC recommends only type-specific glycoprotein (gG) tests for herpes diagnosis. The CDC recommends only type-specific glycoprotein (gG) tests for herpes diagnosis. HSV-2 (90). than the IEA test. 47. Commercial HSV type specic gG based. serology. Serological testing can be used to diagnose genital herpes in the setting of an active genital ulcer. The NZHF has a range of resources to assist patients and clinicians. Genital herpes due to HSV-1 (through oral to genital transmission) has also become common; HSV-1 is a frequent cause of primary genital herpes. Type specific tests, based on glycoproteinG (gG) assays, detect antibodies to the type specific proteins gG-1and gG-2 and detect established infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Herpes simplex virus testing is performed to identify an acute herpes infection or to detect herpes antibodies, an indication of a previous exposure to herpes. A pregnant woman who has been diagnosed with herpes may be monitored regularly prior to delivery to identify a reactivation of her infection, which would indicate the necessity for a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby. Antibodies to HSV are specific proteins that the body creates and releases into the bloodstream to fight the infection. HSV antibody testing can detect both viral types (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and tests are available that can detect the early IgM antibodies as well as the IgG antibodies that remain forever in those who have been exposed. Get the Mobile App.