B virus infection is caused by a herpes virus. B virus is also commonly referred to as herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B. The virus is found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also called crab-eating or long-tailed macaques). Herpes simian B virus is the endemic simplexvirus of macaque monkeys. B virus is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpes viruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral nerves. As such, this neurotropic virus is not found in the blood. In the natural host, the virus exhibits pathogenesis similar to that of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in humans. About 80 percent to 90 percent of adult rhesus macaques are infected with the herpes B virus. The infection spreads into the spinal cord and brain after initially appearing as mild flu-like symptoms or eye infections. Types of macaque monkeys known to carry herpes B are Tibetan macaques, lion-tailed macaques and crab-eating macaques. Thousands of people handle macaque monkeys in research but not many cases of the virus have been documented.
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. Keywords: Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, B virus, herpes B, monkey B virus, Herpesvirus simiae, alphaherpesvirus, zoonoses, primate, macaque, rhesus, herpesvirus B, synopsis. With the discovery of simian immunodeficiency virus and its identification as a model for HIV infection, the number of macaques used in research has increased, as has the number of human B-virus cases. When symptoms do occur, they are very similar to those caused by HSV. Herpes B virus is carried by the majority of adult macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also known as crab-eating or long-tailed macaques). Herpes B virus infections in humans are rare and usually occur after bites or scratches from macaque monkeys.
It is important to note that in many cases the transmission can go in both directions. In addition, if you ever spot what looks like a cold sore on a monkey, be sure to contact RAR before handling the animal or its cage. Hundreds of rare Rhesus monkeys in Florida are carrying herpes, Wildlife officials have told the media. The virus is also called Herpes B virus or the monkey B virus as it is commonly found in macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques and pig-tailed macaques. NASA: Jupiter’s Moon Europa is Surprisingly More Earth-Like Than Previously Thought. But humans are primates of a sort – similar to monkeys – and many of the disease-causing organisms that belong in sub-human primates, can live in humans and go out of control. It is the Old World monkeys that carry most of the diseases that are dangerous to humans. If this was a bite, wound, scratch or exposure of your lips, mouth, nose or eyes to the saliva, sneeze or cough of a rhesus monkey or another macaque monkey or a puncture from an instrument that was in contact with any of those species and the Herpes-B and tuberculosis status of the animal is unknown, uncertain or positive, have your physician call ZVED (800-232-4636). Just as the human immune system is not equipped to deal with monkey herpes B virus.
B-virus (cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1) Infection In Humans And Macaques: Potential For Zoonotic Disease
B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus1) causes a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-like infection in macaque monkeys but can also cause a fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. The virus is commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also called crab-eating or long-tailed macaques), any of which can harbor latent B virus infection and appear to be natural hosts for the virus. B virus infection in macaques results in a disease similar to herpes simplex virus infection in humans. Given the number of potential exposures for animal care workers, asymptomatic or mild human B virus infection has been postulated to occur, but no evidence for asymptomatic B virus infection or for latent infection has been observed in humans at elevated risk of infection. No other primates carry any risk of B virus transmission unless they have had the opportunity to become infected by a macaque. Many of these human diseases (e.g., AIDS, hepatitis E, bartonellosis) are a consequence of zoonotic infection. Rhesus macaques are susceptible to experimental infection and disease with HGV or genomic RNA (Ren et al. A transgenic mouse carrying the human polio virus receptor gene (CD155) has been developed for neurogenic virulence testing (Abe et al. Macaques typically carry the B virus throughout their lives and shed it intermittently in saliva or genital secretions. In one 1997 incident, a young research assistant at Emory University’s Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta died from B-virus-related complications after she was splashed in the eye with an unknown body fluid when moving a rhesus macaque — the first time this route of transmission had ever been documented. In many instances, the only willing takers are the exotic-animal dealers who fuel the often-illicit trade in the first place. Such animals may carry other infectious diseases besides herpes B, including hepatitis and SIV, the HIV-like simian immunodeficiency virus, which can be passed to humans. The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys. It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and its tolerance of a broad range of habitats. Rhesus macaques, like many macaques, carry the Herpes B virus. This virus does not typically harm the monkey, but is very dangerous to humans in the rare event that it jumps species; for example, in the 1997 death of Yerkes National Primate Research Center researcher Elizabeth Griffin. Dozens of exotic animals, including 18 Bengal tigers, 17 lions, two grizzly bears, and a wolf ran loose in Zanesville, Ohio, Tuesday night, leaving schools closed the following day and many residents staying indoors. Authorities warned residents to keep their distance from the monkey out of fear that it may be carrying the herpes B virus, which can be deadly in humans. Monkeys don’t kiss like humans do, but casual social behaviors such as touching nose-to-mouth and grooming can also spread the disease.
Nonhuman Primate Biosafety
Elizabeth Griffin died on December 10 of complications from a herpes B virus infection. She caught the virus when a body fluid from a rhesus monkey hit her in the eye on October 29. She carried the monkey’s cage at arm’s length, which Yerkes officials considered a low-risk activity. She wore a lab coat, boots, a mask, and gloves, but she did not cover her eyes because it wasn’t called for under the circumstances. The most concerning public health threat is a virus commonly carried by macaques called Macacine Herpesvirus (MHV, also commonly referred to as Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, herpes B, and monkey B virus). (MHV, also commonly referred to as Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, herpes B, and monkey B virus). Oral lesions caused by herpesvirus in monkeys may look like this. A majority of cases occurred in the US, many in the 1950s and 1960s when rhesus macaques were favored for testing human polio vaccines. Infection probably also occurs without lesions in many cases. Encepahalomyelitis due to infection with Herpesvirus simiae (herpes B virus): a report of two fatal acquired cases. Recovery of Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) from both primary and latent infections in rhesus monkeys. Varicella zoster virus immunizes patas monkeys against varicella-like disease.