), Bacterial Infection, (chronic, TB, 2 Syphilis, Typhoid, Toxoplasmosis), Hematologic (Iymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s Disease), Inflammatory Disorders (Ulcerative Colitis, ITP), Endocrine (Adrenal hypotunction, Thyroid hyperfunction), Leukemias (hairy cell, acute lymphatic. In the recipients of allo-HSCT, most viral infections are opportunistic and closely related with immune status. Several viruses, such as CMV, EBV, HHV-6 and adenovirus have been recognized the causes of bone marrow suppression and graft failure 24,25,39,102. Due to the high rate of HSV reactivation, prophylactic oral acyclovir has been administered routinely in allo-HSCT recipients. I/Subacute and autoimmune thyroiditis: a viral infection of the thyroid gland? Judging from the size, it was thought to be influenza or mumps virus 13, which was concordant with an increased frequency of antibodies to the influenza B virus in patients with thyrotoxicosis 14. Serum virus-specific antibodies to measles, rubella, mumps, type I herpes, chicken pox, human parvovirus B19 and CMV were found in 10 patients during the course of illness. EBV. 27, 28. parvovirus B19. 30. measles, chicken pox, CMV. 30.
Theme 3. Diphtheria. Infectious mononucleosis. Mumps. Whooping-cough. Diphtheria of the pharynx must be differentiated from scarlet fever, acute bacterial tonsillitis, infectious mononucleosis; diphtheria of the upper respiratory tract with viral croup caused by parainfluenza, measles, chickenpox, and influenza viruses. Approximately 5 10 of infectious mononucleosis like illnesses are caused by primary infection with cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, adenovirus, viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and possibly rubella virus. Infectious mononucleosis was first described by Sprunt and Evans in the Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1920. Because most patients with EBV infectious mononucleosis usually have fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy, the differential diagnoses are those of an infectious mononucleosis like illness, which include infectious mononucleosis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), acute HIV disease, toxoplasmosis, and anicteric viral hepatitis. In rare cases, EBV infection has been reported as a cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO). Lymphocytosis is one of the classic hematological abnormalities associated with EBV infectious mononucleosis. Eight identified human herpesviruses (HHV) include herpes simplex virus (HSV) (type 1), HSV (type 2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) (type 3), Epstein Barr (EBV) infectious mononucleosis virus (type 4), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (type 5). (EBV) infectious mononucleosis virus (type 4), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (type 5). Atypical large lymphocytes in blood smear; lymphocytosis.
Herpesviruses (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV), human papilloma virus, JC virus and influenza virus. 4.1. Glandular fever is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Glandular fever, also known as infectious mononucleosis, is a type of viral infection. Many people with glandular fever will also experience mild inflammation of the liver or hepatitis with symptoms such as: Intolerance to alcohol. Many infections may have mild, if any, effects on the mother but cause devastating damage to the fetus, especially if they occur in early pregnancy. Even when symptoms do occur, they are nonspecific, or appear as a viral syndrome, suggesting mononucleosis. The rate of perinatal transmission increases with gestational age secondary to the well developed placental blood flow.
Amantadine and rimantadine, have been introduced to combat influenza. Examples of enveloped virus WikiPedia Herpes simplex virus (cold sore), varicella-zoster virus (Shingles), cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis B virus, retrovirus – like HIV, Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, Measles virus, Mumps virus, smallpox. Evidence for role of vitamin D in viral respiratory infections Controlled studies of vitamin D based treatment for prevention of respiratory tract infections and influenza. However, vitamin D deficiency results in increased parathyroid hormone, inducing renal hydroxylation of 25(OH)D via renal CYP27B1. The prevalence of Herpes viruses in humans is high, affecting at least one third of the worldwide population; and in the United States, 70-80 of the population have some kind of Herpes infection. While the pathology of Herpes infections are usually not dangerous, as in the case of HSV-1 which usually only causes short lived lesions around the mouth and face, these viruses are also known to be the cause of more dangerous symptoms, which vary from genital ulcers and discharge to fetal infections which can lead to encephalitis (15 mortality) or disseminated infection (40 mortality). EBV, like the cytomegalovirus, is also associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, which is a potentially fatal complication of chronic immunosuppression following solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. HBV causes hepatitis B in humans. As more and more infectious agents become targets for immunization programmes, the spectrum of adverse events linked to vaccines has been widening. (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis B and C), and vaccines against non-infectious conditions (e.
European Evidence-based Consensus On The Prevention, Diagnosis And Management Of Opportunistic Infections In Inflammatory Bowel Disease