Most people acquire herpes simplex type 1 (the cause of cold sores or fever blisters) in childhood so it is a ubiquitous exposure. Children are at greatest risk of developing severe complications, while adults generally develop flu-like symptoms. Some forms of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis are contagious and can be spread through contact with saliva, nasal discharge, feces, or respiratory and throat secretions (often spread through kissing, coughing, or sharing drinking glasses, eating utensils, or such personal items as toothbrushes, lipstick, or cigarettes). In the UK, the most common virus to cause encephalitis is herpes simplex virus. Some people can recover from encephalitis and have few, or no, long-term problems. Meningitis is an inflammation of the lining that covers the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). Most cases of viral meningitis are relatively mild, with symptoms of headache, fever and general ill feeling, and those affected recover without medical treatment. Individuals may also develop a rash or have muscle pain. Most infections produce no symptoms, or mild symptoms such as sore throats, colds and flu-like illnesses. HSV encephalitis is mainly caused by HSV-1 (which is also the cause of most cold-sores), whereas meningitis is more often caused by HSV-2 (the cause of most genital herpes). The risk to contacts is very low.
An inflammation of the brain’s covering, or meninges, is called meningitis. Encephalitis can occur with certain childhood viral illnesses, such as mumps, measles, varicella (chicken pox), rubella (German measles), or mononucleosis. A much more serious type of encephalitis is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Encephalitis may develop in a person who has meningitis (meh-nin-JY-tis), an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges (meh-NIN-jeez). In more serious cases there may be high fever, nausea (NAW-zee-uh), vomiting, confusion, double vision, personality changes, problems with hearing and speech, hallucinations, sleepiness, clumsiness, muscle weakness, loss of sensation, and irritability. Genital herpes, often simply known as herpes, may have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open and result in small ulcers. Herpes simplex is divided into two types; HSV-1 causes primarily mouth, throat, face, eye, and central nervous system infections, whereas HSV-2 causes primarily anogenital infections. Since most asymptomatic individuals are unaware of their infection, they are considered at high risk for spreading HSV.
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States. There are two forms of the herpes simplex virus:. People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection. Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Encephalitis is a rare brain inflammation caused by a virus. In more severe cases of encephalitis, a person is more likely to experience high fever and any of a number of symptoms that relate to the central nervous system, including:. It’s harder to detect some of these symptoms in infants, but important signs to look for include:. Causes. Because encephalitis can be caused by many types of germs, the infection can be spread in several different ways. Non-infecti0us types include carcinomatous meningitis and some other granulomatous forms, like sarcoid. CSF protein is very high and centrifugation of large volumes of spinal fluid may yield cancerous cells. Clinically, patients have focal cortical signs, and as lesions become more numerous, the clinical course becomes one of progressive deterioration.
Encephalitis Facts, Information, Pictures
What would you like to print? Patients with HSE Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised patients with febrile encephalopathy. In children older than 3 months and in adults, HSE is usually localized to the temporal and frontal lobes and is caused by HSV-1. Viral encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus. The major risk from viral encephalitis is permanent brain damage. There is evidence to suggest that some cases of viral encephalitis are caused by a dormant herpes simplex virus infection becoming active again. Certain viruses have a preference for different areas of the brain. Meningitis. This page contains notes on herpes simplex viruses. The gravest form of ocular herpetic disease occur when the virus spreads to the anterior chamber. HSV infection through the genital route and the risk is concentrated in young adulthood. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has a prevalence of 0.1 – 0.4 per 100,000. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps, West Nile virus and others also can cause viral meningitis. Meningitis can also result from noninfectious causes, such as chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer and inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) typically causes infection above the waist and the infections are localized to mouth and oropharynx, whereas herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) usually causes genital infections and can also cause CNS or disseminated disease in neonates. Primary HSV-2 infection can have a presentation similar to this after orogenital contact and it may occur concurrently with genital herpes simplex virus infection. In the absence of prompt recognition and early institution of antiviral treatment, the disease has a high mortality rate. CNS infection: Nearly one third of infants with neonatal herpes simplex virus infection have encephalitis as the sole manifestation of disease. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is responsible for significant neurological morbidity, perhaps more than any other virus. Risk factors for neonatal HSV disease include first-episode maternal infection in the third trimester, invasive monitoring, delivery before a gestational age of 38 weeks, and maternal age of less than 21 years. 2 is not the only virus responsible for Mollaret meningitis, and some authorities have suggested that the term be restricted to recurrent aseptic meningitis without an identifiable cause. Herpetic skin lesions may accompany the neurological manifestations.
Some tick-borne encephalitis cases have been reported, but only rarely in the US. Note that the annual incidence of encephalitis caused by HSV is only two cases per million people. Early symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis usually last 3-5 days, usually resolve without becoming serious, and are similar to those of a flu and usually include fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle aches, and lethargy. Meningitis: inflammation of the membranes lining the brain and spinal cord. It is also one of the scariest — understandably, since untreated some forms of meningitis can cause death or lasting impairment. Very young babies do not have fully-functioning immune systems either and are thus susceptible to sepsis; this is why we routinely give IV antibiotics to any child under 2 months old who has a fever — we cannot risk leaving sepsis untreated. Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by Herpes simplex viruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2). Most individual disorders may be caused by HSV 1 or HSV 2, though some disorders have significantly different rates of infection by type. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections varies throughout the world with poor hygiene, overcrowding, lower socioeconomic status, and birth in an undeveloped country identified as risk factors associated with increased HSV-1 childhood infection. Although patients usually have their own distinct recurrence patterns, high stress and pregnancy have been reported to be associated with the recurrence (9, 108). The best available therapy for HSV encephalitis is intravenous acyclovir (30 mg/kg of body weight/day), which is given for a period of 14 to 21 days (92, 107). In contrast, HSV-2 generally causes meningitis and milder forms of CNS disease. With this change in disease patterns, some HSV strains have developed resistance to acyclovir as well as other nucleoside analogues (40).
For example, HSV and VZV become latent in neurons of ganglia, whereas EBV is latent in B lymphocytes. The mechanism by which HSV-1 infects the CNS to cause encephalitis has not been definitively established. The clinical features of HSV-2 encephalitis in immunocompetent adults are generally similar to those seen with HSV-1 encephalitis, although some immunocompetent patients with HSV-2 encephalitis have less-aggressive forms of encephalitis. In patients with recurrent disease, valaciclovir or aciclovir have been used to reduce the likelihood of recurrences. HSV-2 most commonly causes genital herpes infections. In the past few years, several type-specific antibody assays have received FDA approval and are now commercially available (Table 5). As such, confirmatory diagnosis of genital herpes in a patient presenting with crusting or healed lesions should not include viral culture, since the likelihood of a false-negative result is high. The two strains of the herpes simplex virus cause both cold sores and genital herpes. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. The presentation in adults is often similar to that of bacterial meningitis, with photophobia perhaps more prominent in enteroviral meningitis 2, 7. The immunocompromised are also at a higher risk of developing paralytic poliomyelitis, which in developed countries has been acquired through receipt of (or contact with those who have received) oral polio virus (OPV). HSV encephalitis is predominantly caused by HSV-1, whereas meningitis is more often caused by HSV-2, although is not always associated with episodes of genital herpes. The most common form of meningitis, viral meningitis is typically mild and resolves without treatment. In temperate climates, the viruses spread most during summer and autumn, and infection rates are high all year long in tropical and subtropical climates, according to the BMJ report. Encephalitis is acute inflammation of the brain that is caused by either a viral infection or the immune system mistakenly attacking brain tissue. The affected patient typically has a fever, headache and photophobia (excessive sensitivity to light). In some cases the patient can become aggressive. Common viruses, such as HSV (herpes simplex virus) or EBV (Epstein Barr virus). Viral meningitis is an infection of the brain that typically causes flu-like symptoms. Given that nearly 80 percent of humans contract some form of herpes by the age of 60, according to data from The New York Times, the chance of contracting herpes-related viral meningitis might be more common than you think. A 2009 study conducted by The Hospital for Sick Children in Canada indicated that in a group of 366 children, 1 showed seizure complications due to bacterial meningitis caused by HSV encephalitis. Individuals with herpes have a higher risk of contracting meningitis and having complications during meningitis outbreaks. Furthermore, the types of infection that most commonly cause encephalitis vary depending on patient age, underlying health conditions, time of year, and geography. Some never have symptoms (asymptomatic infection). Newborn infants of mothers with active genital herpes at the time of delivery are at increased risk of HSV disease including encephalitis, particularly if it is the mother s first episode of disease. In young children, febrile seizures can sometimes occur at high frequency during a fever illness and lead to the child being very drowsy.